Colored people consist of three mixed race populations in South Africa who were given more social privilege than other, unmixed, indigenous African groups.
Many studies report lower private sector earnings for racial minorities, although it is often difficult to determine the extent to which this is the result of racial discrimination. shows that socioeconomic and health inequality among African Americans along the color continuum is often similar or even larger in magnitude than what obtains betweens whites and African Americans as a whole.
A 2016 meta-analysis of 738 correspondence tests in 43 separate studies conducted in OECD countries between 19 finds that there is extensive racial discrimination in hiring decisions in Europe and North-America. In the 20th century there has been a shift towards a preference for darker, tanned skin in white communities.
In addition to rivalries among descendants of African Americans, the Americans held themselves above the native Africans in Liberia.
Thus, descendants of Americans held and kept power out of proportion to their representation in the population of the entire country, so there was a larger issue than color at work.
More recently, this was understood to have been a strategy by British colonial powers to subjugate Indian civilization.