Along the canals and creeks, farmers raise large flocks of ducks; the Nanjing duck, preserved in salt and pressed, is a delicacy of Chinese cuisine.Before 1949, Nanjing was noted chiefly for its traditional handicraft products, such as satins, velvets, and brocades.The city wall—of which about two-thirds is still standing—is 21 miles (34 km) long, has an average height of 40 feet (12 metres), and originally included 13 gates (a few of which are still extant). January and July mean temperatures are about 37 °F (3 °C) and 82 °F (28 °C), respectively.
Xuanwu district contains such landmarks as Beijige (“North Pole Pavilion”) and Jimingsi (“Cockcrow Temple”), as well as city government offices and modern residential quarters.
It is also a centre of the city’s ancient culture; it includes the ruins of the former Ming dynasty palace as well as Nanjing Museum and scientific institutions.
It is a port on the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and a major industrial and communications centre.
Rich in history, it served seven times as the capital of regional empires, twice as the seat of revolutionary government, once (during the Sino-Japanese War of 1937–45) as the site of a puppet regime, and twice as the capital of a united China (the second time ending with the Japanese conquest of the city in 1937). (2005 est.) urban districts, 2,363,844; urban and suburban districts, 5,133,771; mun., 5,957,992.
Gulou encompasses the former northern and western districts of the old city.